|1) administrative service||a) дипломатическая служба|
|2) appointive service||b) государственная гражданская служба|
|3) career service||c) служба в административном учреждении|
|4) civil service||d) пожизненная служба|
|5) diplomatic service||e) служба по назначению|
|6) honorary service||f) почетная (неоплачиваемая) служба|
|7) life service||g) общественная служба|
|8) national service||h) внутренняя гражданская служба|
|9) part-time service||i) внештатная служба, служба по совместительству|
|10) public service||j) государственная служба|
|Уроки английского языка. English lessons online|
2. Прочитайте текст Civil Service Employment и заполните пропуски в тексте словами и выражениями, данными в рамке.
|retirement governmental salaries states employees benefits government agency employment municipalities employment system|
CIVIL SERVICE EMPLOYMENT
What does it mean when someone says he or she is a civil service employee or a civil servant? It means that person works for a __1__. Civil service encompasses __2__ in Federal, state, and local government agencies. Each is responsible for its own employment system. This means that each state takes care of its own personnel needs, as does each city within those states. Local __3__ such as villages, townships and towns, school districts, and special districts often have their own employment systems as well. Each of these __4__ units -- Federal, state, and local -- is independent and engages in different hiring practices. Because of this, it would be impossible to go into detail here about working for specific __5__ or municipalities. Therefore, any specific information given here will pertain only to U.S. government jobs.
Pros and Cons of Public Employment
Believed by many to be among the most secure work environments, jobs in government are highly sought after. Excellent __6__ and health benefits are what attract many people to these jobs. Not all governments, though, are generous in the __7__ they offer. In addition, government agencies have faced some of the same problems that the private sector has faced in recent years. Downsizing is one of these problems.
Salaries in the public sector are often competitive with those in the private sector. If you add benefits to these __8__, they often come out ahead. Wages increase with your time spent in a particular government agency. In the Federal __9__, these increases in salary are called steps.
Unfortunately, civil service __10__ have a reputation for being lazy. Though there may be a few bad apples in the bunch, as there are in most bunches, civil service workers are no more likely to be poor workers. Most workers are ambitious and hard working.
3. Прочитайте текст The British Civil Service In The Past и переведите на английский язык слова и выражения, данные в скобках.
THE BRITISH CIVIL SERVICE IN THE PAST
Traditionally, and the most essential characteristic of the British Civil Service ‘is the (1. ответственность) of the minister for every act done in his (2. департамент)’. The act of every civil servant is by convention regarded as the act of his. The Minister is (3. ответственный) for every stamp stuck on an envelope.
One of the consequences of this (4. конституционный) position is that the executive arrangements in British (5. правительство) are bureaucratic – that is, consistent with the characteristics of an ideal (6. бюрократия). There is a (7. иерархия) of accountability from the most (8. младшие гражданские служащие) through their superiors up to, eventually, the permanent secretary and from the permanent secretary to (9. министры) who are answerable to Parliament and its committees. Then, not less frequently than once every five years, the Government is answerable to the people, at a general (10. выборы). This is what is generally known as representative (11. демократия). The system is, however, more complex than at first appears and, particularly in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, it has led to increasingly complex arrangements to ensure that the accountability of (12. чиновники) is clear when they are engaged in implementing government policies.
4. Прочитайте текст Political Neutrality. Заполните пропуски подходящим по смыслу словом справа, преобразовав его с помощью приставки или суффикса.
|The Home Civil Service is a __1__neutral body, with the||POLITICS|
|function of impartially __2__the policy programme of the||IMPLEMENT|
|elected __3__ .||GOVERN|
|Like all servants of the Crown, civil servants are __4__||LEGAL|
|barred from standing for __5__ as Members of Parliament||ELECT|
|or any other __6__ office. Also, members of the Senior Civil||POLITICS|
|Service are barred from holding office in a political party
or __7__ expressing controversial political viewpoints,
|while less senior civil servants at an intermediate level
must __8__ seek permission to participate in political activities.
|The most junior civil servants are permitted to participate in political __9__,
but must be politically neutral in the exercise of their duties.
|All civil servants may not disclose sensitive government __10__ .|
5. Прочитайте текст The Essence Of Leadership. Определите, какое из утверждений после текста является истинным (T) или ложным (F). Отметьте варианты ответов.
THE ESSENCE OF LEADERSHIP
Good leaders are made not born. If you have the desire and willpower, you can become an effective leader. Good leaders develop through a never ending process of self-study, education, training, and experience. This information will help you to come through that process.
To inspire your workers into higher levels of teamwork, there are certain things you must be, know, and, do. These do not come naturally, but are acquired through continual work and study. Good leaders are continually working and studying to improve their leadership skills; they are NOT resting on their laurels.
Before we get started, lets define leadership. Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. Leaders carry out this process by applying their leadership attributes, such as beliefs, values, ethics, character, knowledge, and skills. Although your position as a manager, supervisor etc. gives you the authority to accomplish certain tasks and objectives in the organization, this power does not make you a leader, it simply makes you the boss. Leadership differs in that it makes the followers want to achieve high goals, rather than simply bossing people around.
Bass' theory of leadership states that there are three basic ways to explain how people become leaders. The first two explain the leadership development for a small number of people. These theories are:
o Some personality traits may lead people naturally into leadership roles. This is the Trait Theory.
o A crisis or important event may cause a person to rise to the occasion, which brings out extraordinary leadership qualities in an ordinary person. This is the Great Events Theory.
o People can choose to become leaders. People can learn leadership skills. This is the Transformational Leadership Theory. It is the most widely accepted theory today.
When a person is deciding if she respects you as a leader, she does not think about your attributes, rather, she observes what you do so that she can know who you really are. She uses this observation to tell if you are an honorable and trusted leader or a self-serving person who misuses authority to look good and get promoted. Self-serving leaders are not effective because their employees only obey them, not follow them. They succeed in many areas because they present a good image to their seniors at the expense of their workers.
The basis of good leadership is honorable character and selfless service to your organization. In your employees' eyes, your leadership is everything you do that effects the organization's objectives and their well-being. Respected leaders concentrate on what they are [be] (such as beliefs and character), what they know (such as job, tasks, and human nature), and what they do (such as implementing, motivating, and providing direction).
What makes a person want to follow a leader? People want to be guided by those they respect and who have a clear sense of direction. To gain respect, they must be ethical. A sense of direction is achieved by conveying a strong vision of the future.
|1. Good leaders develop through all their lives.|
|2. Leadership attributes are be, know, and, do.|
|3. The authority to accomplish certain tasks and objectives makes you a leader.|
|4. People decide themselves to be or not to be a leader.|
|5. Self-serving leaders succeed in many areas at the expense of their workers.|
|6. If you want to gain respect, you must be ethical.|
4. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту The Essence Of Leadership.
1) Are people born to be leaders?
2) How do good leaders develop?
3) Are good leaders continually working and studying to improve their leadership skills, or they rest on their laurels?
4) What is leadership?
5) Does the authority to accomplish certain tasks and objectives make you a leader? Why?
6) What is the difference between leadership and bossing people around?
7) How do people become leaders according to Bass' theory of leadership?
8) What are the theories of leadership?
9) Are self-serving leaders effective? Why?
10) What is the basis of good leadership?
5. Прочитайте и переведите предложения. Раскройте скобки и выберите правильную видо-временную форму глагола.
1) The Government (are / is) answerable to the people.
2) At the moment the boss (tells / is telling) others what to do.
3) Our manager is very tired. He (has been working / is working) hard for many hours.
4) I (was walking / walked) to my office when I met my colleague.
5) He (wrote / writes) a letter to the department yesterday.
6) He (has achieved / achieved) a position of leadership in the British civil service recently.
7) Civil servants in the past (had exercised / exercised) considerable influence on public affairs.
8) May be tomorrow he (will take / takes) this important decisions.
9) Different people (require / requires) different styles of leadership.
10) Nowadays Civil Servants (become / are becoming) risk takers, adventurers and public entrepreneurs.
6. Прочитайте и переведите предложения. Раскройте скобки и выберите правильную форму инфинитива.
1) Look, they are probably (to listen/to be listening) to the news. They seem (to be excited / to have excited).
2) When I came in, the discussion seemed (to be coming/ to have come) to an end.
They appeared (to lose / to be losing) patience because they turned out (not to be ready/ be ready) for it.
3) The employees didn’t notice the manager (come / to be coming) into the room.
4) The manager ordered the contract (to translate / to be translated) into English.
5) Mr. Folder usually lets his secretary (stay / to stay) at home when she feels sick.
7. Выберите правильный вариант перевода форм причастий или герундия, данных в скобках.
1) The most essential characteristic of the British civil service is the responsibility of the minister for every act (выполненное) in his department.
a) doing b) done c) having been done
2) He spends a lot of time (нанимая) employees.
a) hiring b) having hired c) having been hired
3) Do you mind (если я уволю) this civil servant?
a) my dismissing b) my dismissed c) my having dismissed
4) (После того, как он занимал) one of the most senior positions in the Civil Service for many years he was retired.
a) having hold b) having been hold c) hold
5) I believe you can be passionate without (быть пристрастным)
a) be partial b) being partial c) having been partial